Moliere made a colossal contribution to the development of world drama. It was he who invented a new genre - "high comedy", where social evil was denounced and "nationality" triumphed. His legendary comedies have been on the stage of many theaters for more than three centuries.
Moliere's biography: early years
Moliere (real name and surname - Jean Baptiste Poquelin) was born in 1622 in Paris. He was the son of a venerable "simple court upholsterer" and was supposed to acquire the profession of a lawyer. However, from childhood he was fond of theater. Despite his father's protests, Moliere became an artist.
In those days, such a choice of life path was risky. Although the acting profession was no longer shameful, in high society it was treated with disdain. Then in France, the theater and the church had a very difficult relationship.
In 1643, the young Jean Baptiste, together with the famous actress Madeleine Bejart, her family and nine other actors, founded the "Brilliant Theater". Then he decided to take the pseudonym Moliere, but Paris did not accept him. People rarely attended the performances of the "Brilliant Theater". Money troubles led to the fact that two years later, Moliere, along with the Béjart family, were hired into a touring troupe. Five years later, Moliere was headed by her and began to live in Lyon. This happened thanks to Prince Conti, who was known as a great theater lover.
Soon, Moliere's troupe became famous throughout the southeastern part of France. He has directed fashionable Spanish and Italian plays. Moliere himself also wrote two plays: "Annoyance for Love" and "Shaly".
In 1658 the troupe was registered in Rouen. There, the brother of King Louis XIV, Monsieur, became her patron. In October of the same year, the troupe performed in front of the king Corneille's play Nycomedes. The ruler almost fell asleep during the performance. Then Moliere decided to show him the comedy Doctor in Love, in which he himself played the main role. And it was a success! Louis ordered the Italian and Molière troupes to share the permanent hall of Petit Bourbon.
In 1660, the king invited Moliere and his troupe to perform at the Palais Royal. 20 years later, this room became known as the "Comedie Francaise".
In those days, the audience's favorite theatrical genre was tragedy. Moliere felt that the audience was ready for subtle and relevant comedies. He himself wrote comedies with modern plots and real intrigue. His characters were the Parisian bourgeois, and he portrayed pressing problems comically, not caricatured. Moliere's comedies completely renewed the genre and won the sympathy of the most educated public. After his death, he was christened the father of French comedy.
Among the famous comedies of Moliere:
- "Ridiculous Cutie";
- "Don Juan";
- "Imaginary Sick";
- "Bourgeois in the nobility."
Despite the king's favor, Moliere had many enemies. His Tartuffe, in which he denounced religious hypocrisy, caused discontent on the part of the church. The play has been banned for five years.
Moliere died in 1673. It happened right on the stage during the play "The Imaginary Sick". Moliere, by order of the king, was buried according to the church rite, but at night.