Parties in a democracy are part of the political system. They bring together large groups of people with common interests and pursuing common goals. Political parties carry out their activities on the basis of decisions taken in accordance with the laws in force in the country and the provisions of the charter.
The backbone of any political party is its members. They have the right to take a direct part in the discussion of the line pursued by the party, as well as in the development of important decisions that determine the general course of political unification. The decision-making process is usually enshrined in political party legislation, statutes and operating regulations.
As a rule, parties are independent in developing and making decisions. The state does not interfere in the activities of political associations of citizens as long as party decisions do not violate the law. Parties have the right to determine their own goals, objectives and ways of implementing program provisions.
The first organizational decision on which the existence of the party depends is the establishment of this public association. For this purpose, the initiative group convenes a congress, to which delegates are invited, elected according to certain principles and norms of representation. The decision of the congress to establish a party is usually made by a simple majority of votes of all those present at this organizational event.
The most important decisions, for example, the adoption of the charter and the party program, the election of governing and control bodies, amendments to the main documents, are also made at periodic congresses. Such congresses can be held at regular intervals, but sometimes they are called on an emergency basis. Decisions made by delegates to regular and extraordinary congresses are binding on all party members.
In the intervals between congresses, the direct leadership of the work of the Party as a whole is carried out by Party organs. This could be the Party Council, the Central Committee, the Political Bureau, and so on. Such a management system allows making current decisions without delay, without waiting for the convocation of the next congress. The competence of the party governing bodies is determined in the corresponding section of the charter.
Decision-making in local (regional) divisions of the party is also spelled out in the charter documents. As a rule, the sphere of activity of regional structures includes issues of local importance and not affecting the interests of the party as a whole. Party committees or branches can be built on a territorial or production basis, and their decisions become binding on all members of the lower cells.
The principles of decision-making and their implementation in parties can be different. Some decisions can be made only by a qualified majority of votes, for example, two thirds of the total number of those present. Most of the strong and developed parties use the principle of democratic centralism in their work. It implies not only the obligatory decisions of the higher bodies for the lower ones, but also guarantees the possibility of a broad preliminary discussion of the most important issues in the primary organizations.