At the beginning of the 13th century, the warlike Genghis Khan united a number of Mongol tribes under his rule. From that moment on, campaigns of conquest began, the ultimate goal of which was the creation of a powerful superpower. Subsequently, a vast area from the Pacific coast to the Danube was controlled by the descendants of Genghis Khan, the most influential of which was Jochi. In the chronicles, the ulus of Jochi's successor, Batu, began to be called the Golden Horde.
Facts from the history of the Golden Horde
Historians consider the year 1243 to be the beginning of the creation of the Golden Horde. At this time, Batu returned from a campaign of conquest to Europe. At the same time, the Russian prince Yaroslav first arrived at the court of the Mongol khan to receive a label for reign, that is, the right to rule the Russian lands. The Golden Horde is rightfully considered one of the largest medieval powers.
The size and military power of the Horde were unmatched in those years. Even the rulers of distant states sought friendship with the Mongol state.
The Golden Horde stretches for thousands of kilometers, representing an ethnic mixture of the most diverse nationalities. The state included Mongols, Russians, Volga Bulgars, Mordovians, Bashkirs, Circassians, Georgians, Polovtsians. The Golden Horde inherited its multinational character after the conquest of many territories by the Mongols.
How the Golden Horde was formed
For a long time, tribes united under the general name "Mongols" roamed in the vast steppes of the central part of Asia. They had property inequality, they had their own aristocracy, which drew wealth during the seizure of pastures and lands of ordinary nomads.
A fierce and bloody struggle was waged between individual tribes, which ended in the creation of a feudal state with a powerful military organization.
In the early 30s of the XIII century, a detachment of many thousands of Mongol conquerors went to the Caspian steppes, where the Polovtsians roamed at that time. Having previously conquered the Bashkirs and the Volga Bulgars, the Mongols began to seize the Polovtsian lands. These vast territories were taken over by the eldest son of Genghis Khan, Khan Jochi. His son Batu (Batu, as he was called in Russia) finally strengthened his power over this ulus. Batu made his state stake in 1243 on the Lower Volga.
The political education headed by Batu in the historical tradition later received the name "Golden Horde". It should be noted that the Mongols themselves did not call this state this way. They called him "Ulus Jochi". The term "Golden Horde" or simply "Horde" appeared in historiography much later, around the 16th century, when nothing remained of the once powerful Mongolian state.
The choice of the location for the Horde control center was made by Batu deliberately. The Mongol Khan appreciated the dignity of the local steppes and meadows, which were the best suited for the pastures that horses and livestock needed. The Lower Volga is a place where the paths of caravans crossed, which the Mongols could easily control.