During the first two decades of the last century, three revolutions took place in Russia, the last of which ended with the establishment of Soviet power. The reasons for the revolutionary uprisings of the masses were rooted in the political and economic contradictions that were growing in the country with the entry of capitalism into the stage of imperialist development.
Revolution of 1905-1907
In the first few years of the 20th century, the internal political situation in the Russian Empire became extremely aggravated. The remnants of the feudal system hampered the development of relations in the countryside, where landlord ownership remained. There were almost no political freedoms in the country. The crisis in the field of national relations also grew. The rapid development of capitalism intensified the exploitation of workers, who increasingly claimed their rights by organizing strikes and strikes.
One of the reasons for the first Russian revolution was the defeat of Tsarist Russia in the war with Japan.
Liberal political circles in 1904 put forward a proposal to introduce a constitution in the country that would limit the power of the autocracy. The king responded with a categorical refusal. The last straw was the shooting by the tsarist troops of the peaceful procession on January 9, 1905. The demonstrators were going to submit a petition to Nicholas II, which contained demands for democratic change in Russia. However, a brutal massacre was perpetrated against the demonstrators, which shook the country and became one of the reasons for the revolutionary uprisings.
February 1917: bourgeois revolution
The revolution of 1905-1907 ended in failure and did not resolve class, economic and political contradictions. The revolutionary movement began to decline, and the time for reaction and political repression came in Russia. But the problems remained and needed to be solved. In 1914, Russia entered the imperialist war, which showed the complete inability of the tsarist regime to carry out military tasks.
By the beginning of 1917, the situation was extremely tense. Enterprises all over the country stopped their work, as a result of which the tsarist army experienced a shortage of weapons and food. The transport system collapsed, and the railways were virtually unable to cope with transportation. In this situation, the Social Democrats and other left-wing forces strove to use the people's discontent, directing them to the struggle against the autocracy.
Under the conditions of the fall in the authority of the tsarist government, the anti-war sentiments of the masses manifested themselves. Added to this was the critical position of the peasantry and the working class, who bore the innumerable burdens of the war on their shoulders. The events of the second Russian revolution took place very rapidly. They began with a series of strikes and a general political strike under the slogan of overthrowing the autocracy.
The result of the February Revolution was the abdication of Nicholas II from power. The country has entered a period of democratic transformations.
After the success of the February Revolution in the country, in fact, there was a dual power. The Soviets became the organ of people's power, and the Provisional Government exercised the dictatorship of the bourgeoisie. Bourgeois circles advocated the continuation of the imperialist war and in every possible way postponed the solution of the land question, which was so urgent for the peasants. The economic situation in Russia continued to remain critical. The expectations of the masses did not come true.
The objective prerequisites were created for the development of the bourgeois revolution into a proletarian one, which would bring the proletariat to power in alliance with the peasantry.
In early July 1917, there were major riots, the participants of which demanded the removal of the Provisional Government and the unconditional transfer of all power to the Soviets. By order of the government, the actions of the people were suppressed by force. The arrests of the Bolsheviks began in the country, the death penalty was restored. In fact, the dual power ended with the victory of the bourgeois Provisional Government.
The Bolshevik Party, which went underground, launched active agitation and propaganda, calling on the masses to overthrow the counter-revolutionary Provisional Government and establish the power of the working people. The future socialist revolution was prepared in accordance with all the rules of the art of war. It was precisely the careful preparation of an armed uprising that allowed the Bolsheviks to take power with relative ease and overthrow the Provisional Government, which by the end of October 1917 was no longer able to control the situation.