Every employed person retires one day. At the same time, it is very important to know in advance what payments can be expected upon reaching the retirement age. To do this, it is necessary to understand the structure of pension savings - in particular, in the division of pensions into an insurance part and a funded one.
Insurance part of the pension
The insurance part of the pension got its name due to the fact that it is formed according to the insurance principle. The insured event in this case is the very fact of a person's retirement upon reaching a certain age. In Russia it is 60 years for men and 55 for women. The insurer is the state represented by the PFR - the Pension Fund of Russia.
The insurance part of the pension is formed at the expense of funds allocated to the Pension Fund by employers. These amounts are proportional to the salary, so it is very important for the employee to receive exactly the “white” salary - in this case, the employer will pay more to the Pension Fund of the Russian Federation, which will ensure a higher pension. 22% of the amount that goes to pay the employee's salary is monthly deducted to the Pension Fund.
It should be noted that the conditions for receiving the insurance part of the pension change every year towards their tightening. If in 2015, in order to receive an old-age insurance pension, it will be necessary to have a total work experience of 6 years, then by 2025 it will rise to 15 years. After 2025, the amount of required seniority will not increase.
One of the distinctive features of an insurance pension is its annual increase (indexation) by the state. At the same time, the level of increase cannot be lower than the level of inflation in the country.
Accumulative part of the pension
Unlike an insurance pension, a funded one is formed on other principles. Monthly contributions to the funded pension since 2014 are 2%. This is a small amount, so each working person can himself additionally transfer money to his accumulative retirement account, thereby increasing the amount of future payments.
Payments will be made after reaching retirement age, their size directly depends on the accumulated amount. When calculating monthly payments, such a parameter as the period of the expected payment of the pension is taken into account, it is equal to 228 months. The entire accumulated amount is divided by 228, which determines the amount of monthly payments. If a person retires later than the due date, the period of expected pension payment is shortened accordingly, and the amount of payments is proportionally increased.
When the entire accumulated amount is received by the pensioner, payments on the funded part of the pension will be stopped, only the insurance pension will remain. In addition, the funded part can be received all at once - provided that its amount does not exceed 5% of the amount accumulated in the insurance part of the pension.
It is also possible to shorten the payment period of the funded pension, with a corresponding increase in the monthly paid amounts. The minimum period is 10 years. If a person does not live up to the end of the payment period, the remaining amount in his retirement account can be received by his relatives.