Bibikov Alexander Ilyich: Biography, Career, Personal Life

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Bibikov Alexander Ilyich: Biography, Career, Personal Life
Bibikov Alexander Ilyich: Biography, Career, Personal Life

Video: Bibikov Alexander Ilyich: Biography, Career, Personal Life

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Alexander Ilyich Bibikov - a military and statesman of the eighteenth century, one of the people who suppressed the peasant uprising of Pugachev. Under Catherine II, he received the rank of general-in-chief. In addition, it was he who was the chairman of the so-called Legislative Commission, which functioned from 1767 to 1769.

Bibikov Alexander Ilyich: biography, career, personal life
Bibikov Alexander Ilyich: biography, career, personal life

early years

Alexander Ilyich Bibikov was born on June 10, 1729 (new style) in Moscow. His father Ilya Bibikov came from a noble family, and by rank he was an engineer-lieutenant general.

Alexander was still a child when his mother died. After that, Ilya Bibikov entered into a second marriage, and gave his son to be raised by relatives, nuns of the Conception Convent in Moscow.

At the age of fifteen, Alexander enrolled in the cadet corps. In 1746, he managed to get the rank of ensign engineer with a place of service in St. Petersburg. In 1749 he participated in the creation of the Kronstadt Canal under the leadership of Lieutenant General and talented military engineer Johann Ludwig Luberas.

Marriage and career from 1751 to 1762

In 1751, Princess Anastasia Kozlovskaya became the wife of Alexander Bibikov. He lived with her until his death. In this marriage, four children were born - one daughter (her name is Agrafena) and three sons (Alexander, Pavel and Ilya).

In addition to the wedding, in 1751 another significant event happened in the life of Alexander Ilyich - he received the rank of lieutenant.

In 1753, Bibikov was attached to the Russian envoy at the Saxon court to get acquainted with the innovations used in the Saxon artillery.

In 1756 he was sent on a trip to the Prussian lands - Brandenburg and Pomerania. During this trip, he had to check the condition of the troops in general and the situation with food supplies in particular. Bibikov coped with this task quite well.

In 1758, Alexander Ilyich was promoted to colonel for the courage shown in the battle of Zorndorf (this is one of the battles of the so-called Seven Years War - the largest and largest conflict of the 18th century).

Alexander Bibikov under Catherine II

In 1762, Catherine II ascended the Russian throne. It was with her that Bibikov achieved the greatest success in the civil service. The Empress appreciated the experience and abilities of Alexander Ilyich and often gave him important diplomatic and military assignments.

Bibikov repeatedly participated in suppressing riots in different parts of the Russian Empire. In this field, he became famous as a very cruel and uncompromising person. In 1763, at the direction of the empress, he suppressed the rebellion of the registered peasants in factories in Kazan and Siberia. Within a year, he coped with his task. In 1765, he was sent to the western border of the Russian Empire, due to the fact that there, after the death of the Polish king Augustus III of Saxon, riots broke out there. And this time Bibikov managed to pacify the rioters.

From July 31, 1767, Bibikov acted as chairman of the Legislative Commission, convened to draft a new code of laws. For a year and a half, 203 meetings were held within the framework of this Commission. At them the deputies (there were more than five hundred!) Discussed a number of bills concerning the merchants, nobility, townspeople, legal proceedings, and the question of the status of the peasants was also touched upon. Alas, these meetings did not give any concrete result - the Code was not developed. But at the same time, the Commission exposed the huge social contradictions that existed in the then Russian Empire.

Bibikov, whenever such an opportunity presented itself, begged Catherine II to stop the work of the Commission, and when the Russian-Turkish war began, this was finally done.

In 1769, Bibikov explored the Russian-Finnish border and prepared an offensive-defensive plan in case of a military conflict with the Swedes.

Suppression of the Pugachev uprising and death

It is especially worth mentioning the participation of Bibikov in the suppression of the famous Pugachev uprising, which broke out in 1773. Alexander Ilyich was appointed commander of the troops directed against the rebellious peasants on November 29 of the same 1773. In this post, he replaced Major General Vasily Kara, who could not cope with the rebels. When appointed, Bibikov was given instructions that gave him absolute freedom in choosing the means to pacify the rebellion. In addition, a decree was issued stating that all representatives of the civil and military authorities, as well as the clergy in the region engulfed in the riot, must obey Bibikov.

Alexander Ilyich managed to form an armed cavalry corps from the Cossacks, which inflicted several tangible defeats on the forces of Yemelyan Pugachev. Particularly important was the victory over the rioters on April 1 near Berdskoy village. This victory allowed the state troops to return control over Orenburg. Pugachev was forced to flee to Bashkiria …

When Bibikov learned all this, he left Kazan for Orenburg. And, unfortunately, he fell ill with cholera on the way. This forced him to stay in Bugulma, where he soon died. The official date of death is April 20, 1774 in the new style.

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