Such a phenomenon as orphanhood is quite common in all corners of the world, but each state has its own approach to solving this social problem and seeks to effectively eliminate its pronounced character.
Since the beginning of the twentieth century, the problem of orphanhood and homelessness has acquired a special, pronounced character. As a result of the two world wars, a great many children lost not only their parents, but also a roof over their heads. These events contributed to the development of child law, which included such a concept as the protection of children. The state took responsibility for the implementation of activities to create conditions for the physical and mental development of children, as well as the function of guardianship. It is worth noting the importance of international documents and declarations adopted by the world community in order to ensure the rights of the child in all countries.
In the modern world, the problem of abandoned children does not lose its relevance. At the moment, the phenomenon of social orphanhood is of particular importance. It implies the refusal of parents from educational functions due to the impossibility or unwillingness to carry them out. In this case, children with living parents acquire the status of a social orphan. The main reasons for such a step are: first, the voluntary abandonment of the child by the parents; secondly, the loss of a child by parents due to natural disasters or social shocks; third, deprivation of parental rights.
Even in specialized institutions, where orphans are fully supported by the state and receive material support, they face psychological problems that could only be resolved by a family home. They lack proper adult attention, warm feelings and emotional support. That is why the state, relying on current legislation, gives preference to family forms of placing children, since under conditions of parental care the child successfully develops and goes through the process of socialization.
Social work with this category of children is of particular importance. The content of activities to support orphans is to protect their rights, social rehabilitation and adaptation, help in finding employment, as well as providing housing. The implementation of the tasks presented is entrusted to the guardianship and guardianship authorities. However, at the initial stage, the main goal is to identify children in difficult life situations. A child may become a victim of careless parents who have forgotten about their educational functions due to alcohol dependence, or due to the inability to provide for his maintenance.