There are a number of reasons, both objective and subjective, in the collapse of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. An unbiased study of the combination of these reasons shows that the collapse of such an education as the USSR was inevitable. Almost from the day of its official foundation, the USSR was doomed.
By 1991, the year of official disintegration, the USSR came up with indicators of complete degradation and decline in all main areas: economic, ideological, military, infrastructural and managerial.
Ideology. For 70 years of rule on one sixth of the land, the communist ideology has exhausted itself and completely discredited the main - initially stillborn - Marxist-Leninist teaching.
A crisis of the genre was ripe in society: civil society was not just not formed, but destroyed by ten years of efforts of the CPSU and the KGB in principle. Any of its manifestations were destroyed at the rudimentary level.
All official civic institutions carried a semi-official, demagogic-sophistic discourse.
Every year, partly due to economic degradation, interethnic contradictions that were suppressed by the authorities intensified in some republics. Many representatives of ethnic communities became dissidents, were severely persecuted or served sentences of imprisonment, such as: Mustafa Dzhemilev, Paruyr Hayrikyan, Zviad Gamsakhurdia, Abulfaz Elchibey, Andranik Margaryan.
Violation of elementary civil rights and freedoms in the USSR was the main rule of existence: a ban on travel abroad, a ban on freedom of religion, censorship, oppression on the basis of ethnicity of the so-called "guilty peoples": Chechens, Jews, Crimean Tatars, Meskhetian Turks. The KGB always paid special attention to immigrants from Western Ukraine and the Baltic republics.
Economic + military reasons: since the beginning of the 50s, the USSR not only got involved in the arms race, it imposed it on the world. And, if at the very beginning of the 50s, thanks to a breakthrough in engineering thought in military aviation and the space industry, the USSR managed to get ahead of the rest of the countries that remained behind the "iron curtain", then by the end of the 70s history turned its back on the USSR. The country was rapidly degrading, and the curve of its economy was rapidly rushing to complete zero, since all efforts were aimed at an arms race with a complete decline in scientific, technical and intellectual progress.
The mid-80s of the last century brought another "surprise" to the USSR - world oil prices fell sharply in the world: about 10-30 dollars per barrel. In this regard, the country, which was one of the largest exporters of oil, entered a deadly tailspin and finally lost its position both as the leader of the socialist camp and as a superpower.
The economic situation has become catastrophic: the daily shortage of essential goods, the food crisis, while funding and support for "friendly" countries with a socialist development path did not decrease: Cuba, Angola, Vietnam, Laos, North Korea, etc.
Administrative degradation: in the early 1980s, among other things, there was also an administrative collapse in the USSR. The Kremlin elders who ruled the country did not understand not only that they were rapidly taking the entire USSR with them to the grave, but also that they did not leave behind a single significant and non-standard-minded individual who could become a crisis manager for the country. …
The party functionaries who seized power at the turn of the era - Mikhail Gorbachev, Boris Yeltsin - were just two sides of the same coin, which was thrown into the air by history, and the bets on which, like heads or tails, were made by personal ambitions and interests stretching the country in different directions numerous confidants and gray cardinals.
Ultimately, the gerontological Areopagus split into three zones of influence - the GKChP, the team supporting Yeltsin, and the small number of support for Gorbachev. The former and the latter finally lost both the country and the arms race.However, as time has shown, the average team was unable to change the depressing reality.
Officially, the USSR ordered to live a long time twice: on December 8, 1991, the day when Leonid Kravchuk, Boris Yeltsin and Stanislav Shushkevich signed the Belovezhsky agreement, and on December 25 of the same year, when Mikhail Gorbachev resigned as the First President of the USSR.