A particularly dangerous crime, for which almost at all times and under any ruler the death penalty was relied on - treason. In the modern legislation of the country, there is no such concept; it was replaced by the term high treason.
In modern Russian legislation, there is no legal term "treason", but there is an article in the Criminal Code - high treason. This concept means any dangerous criminal act directed against the existing constitutional order. Namely this: "espionage, issuance of state secrets or other assistance to a foreign state, foreign organization or their representatives in carrying out hostile activities to the detriment of the external security of the Russian Federation, committed by a citizen of the Russian Federation" (Article 275 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation).
Treason to the Motherland today is one of the few crimes for which confiscation of property and the death penalty are imposed in Russia. Moreover, such sentences are passed, but they come into legal force with a suspension of punishment due to the existence of a moratorium on the death penalty in the Russian Federation.
It is interesting that only modern Russian legislation provides for a measure of decompensation, so if a citizen involved in treason timely reported and provided the competent authorities with complete and reliable information about the act, and also helped to prevent further damage to the state, he is exempted from criminal prosecution.
In Russia during the formation of the Soviet Union, treason to the Motherland, as now, was considered a particularly dangerous crime, but the list of "offenses" that could become treason was very extensive. For example, “the plundering of socialist property” was considered treason to the Motherland, and this definition also included a fire that arose through negligence, for example, in the building of a village club, and the write-off of old equipment from the balance sheet due to its unusability.
It was considered a betrayal of the Motherland and … a poor harvest. Those. a priori, the agronomist was obliged to monitor the crops in such a way that, in any weather conditions, the country received the planned amount of production.
A joke about the general secretary of the party, a rude word addressed to a party leader or a military man, inaccurate execution of an order - all this is also a betrayal of the Motherland in a Soviet way.
Many families had relatives who were arrested with the wording "treason". The relatives of the "traitors to the Motherland" could hardly survive in such conditions, since they were often denied jobs, evicted from their homes, not allowed to get a higher education, etc. In order to somehow insure themselves, people joined the Communist Party, agreed to cooperate with the Cheka, the KGB, but this did not help either. Not only ordinary employees, but also the heads of organizations were also accused of treason. In those days, these people were treated simply - they were sentenced to death. Although the wording in the cases of the "traitors" was more than serious: embezzlement, damage, destruction, etc.
It is clear that your attitude towards the Motherland is most clearly manifested precisely in difficult times: in war, in times of conflict. But how often is such a betrayal understood as "actions against the constitutional order or the ruling regime." At all times, the terms of imprisonment were different. So, in the days of the USSR, there was article 64, which stipulated a period of 10-25 years, or a supreme measure. But in the case of a prison term, the punishment was not limited to this, tk. The "traitor" was usually exiled (Magadan, Urengoy, Omsk, Siberian mines), where he himself died from difficult living conditions.