Some countries have a history of thousands of years, while others - only a few years. Among the latter is South Sudan, the youngest state in the world, which declared its independence on July 9, 2011. The capital of this country is the city of Juba.
South Sudan borders Ethiopia in the east, Uganda, Kenya and the Democratic Republic of the Congo in the south, Sudan in the north and the Central African Republic in the west. The country is landlocked. South Sudan received the status of a sovereign state after a referendum in January 2011. Almost 99% of the population voted for secession. The official proclamation of the new state in the world took place on July 9 of the same year.
Until 1820-1821, African tribes lived on the territory of South Sudan without state education. The colonization of this state began under Ottoman rule in Egypt. After the collapse of the Turkish Empire, Great Britain took the country under its wing, which tried to limit the Arab and Islamic influence on the population. Over time, England introduced a separate administration of the south and north of Sudan. At the same time, the Christianization of South Sudan was carried out. In 1956, a unified state of Sudan was proclaimed with the capital Khartoum. From that time until 1972, a Civil War was fought in the country. More than 2 million civilians died and more than 4 million left their homeland in the status of refugees to neighboring countries.
Until 2004, interethnic conflicts did not stop. A long-term war has led the country to a humanitarian disaster. In 2005, the rebels and the government signed an agreement that granted South Sudan autonomy and the right, after six years, to hold a referendum on its independence. In 2011, the promised referendum passed with a positive outcome.
But so far, conflicts between the two states do not subside. The first armed conflict took place in March 2012 in the village of Heglige. And in December 2013, a massive uprising broke out between two ethnic groups inside South Sudan.
In the future, the government of South Sudan plans to move the capital of the country from Juba to the city of Ramsel, which is located in the center of the state. The new capital will be located close to the borders of neighboring countries. The reason for these changes is that Juba bears little resemblance to the country's central city - it has only 30 km of paved road, power outages, health problems, an inoperative sewage system and a lack of drinking water.
South Sudan has one of the highest rates of AIDS in the world. There are also several rare diseases registered in the country that have not been found anywhere else. In April 2014, there was an outbreak of cholera. The majority of the population lives below the poverty line.