At the beginning of the 20th century, Italy entered into an alliance with Austria-Hungary and Germany. Having territorial claims to other countries, in 1915 Italy joined the war on the side of the Entente forces. The result of the military campaign was the annexation of Trieste, Istria and South Tyrol. As a result of these conquests, Slavic and German-speaking national minorities were formed in Italy.
The origin of fascism in Italy
The period from 1918 to 1922 was very difficult for the country. Attempts to achieve success in the diplomatic field did not give the expected results, one failure followed another. Internal conflicts also escalated, and discontent was ripening in the ranks of the opposition. The country's industry was in decline, prices were constantly rising. The people were impoverished at a catastrophic rate, transport practically did not work. The country was shocked by endless meetings, processions and strikes. In the countryside, it was also very restless, the peasants now and then attacked the landowners, revolts broke out everywhere.
In 1919, an organization was created in Italy, which received the name "Fasho di Combattimento" - "Union of Struggle". Her ideological father was one of the socialist leaders - Benito Mussolini. Thus, Italy was getting closer and closer to revolution. The bourgeoisie understood that it could not keep the situation under control, the risk of losing everything was very high.
In August-September 1920, workers began to seize factories and plants. Left-wing radicals called on the people for a social revolution. In the end, the authorities had to make a promise to carry out reforms in the country, and the enterprises were returned to their former owners.
Against the background of the fact that the socialist party was losing its positions, the activity of the ultra-right increased. They smashed the offices of trade unions, beat up political opponents, fascist terror began in the country. The bourgeoisie needed a strong hand that would suppress revolutionary sentiments in society with fear and terror. On October 28, 1922, such a force was brought to power, it was headed by Benito Mussolini. The working class was not united and organized enough to resist totalitarianism.
The collapse of fascism in Italy, the death of the dictator Mussolini
Italian fascism was based on the ideas of war. Mussolini hoped for Hitler's help to build his empire. The cult of strength and unquestioning obedience was instilled in the masses. People were indoctrinated with the idea that Italians belonged to the race of supermen.
The thirties in Italy were marked by wars with Spain, Ethiopia, Albania, Greece and France. Taking the side of Germany, the country got involved in the Second World War. The main reason for the coming of the Nazis to power was the consequences of the First World War - unemployment, people's dissatisfaction with the low standard of living.
Italian fascism collapsed in 1943. On April 28, 1945, the disfigured corpse of Benito Mussolini was hanged upside down by the partisans, then thrown into a gutter. After all the misadventures, the body of the founder of Italian fascism was buried in an unmarked grave, on a site for the poor.