The work of the great Russian poet Alexander Sergeevich Pushkin is highly appreciated all over the world. He is considered one of the most prolific composers of large and small poetic forms. But there is one unique period in his creative life, which has won the special interest of specialists. After all, it was "Boldinskaya Autumn" that, according to them, became a kind of record holder in terms of the number of masterpieces written. Moreover, among the literary works of this time, there are not only lyrical works.
According to the general recognition of all lovers of A. S. Pushkin and experts in this field, it is the "Boldinskaya Autumn" that the world owes the birth of many talented works that came out from under the hands of a recognized genius. During this three-month period, which began on August 31, 1830, the poet was at the peak of his creativity, when he composed his imperishable creations with such enthusiasm and speed that many people get the impression of his supernatural abilities.
But it was precisely the cholera epidemic that tormented Russia at that time and claimed many human lives that caused the poet's unexpected seclusion. And it was this depressing factor that first of all contributed to the unexpectedly freed up time, which Alexander Sergeevich used very fruitfully.
What preceded the "Boldinskaya autumn"
The spring and summer of 1830 became the harbingers of the great poet's “Boldinskaya autumn”. On May 6, the announcement of the engagement of Pushkin and Goncharova took place. Due to the financial difficulties of the bride's family, the wedding was postponed several times. Natalia Goncharova's mother did not want to be considered ruined, and therefore she considered the absence of her daughter's dowry a difficulty for this solemn event. In addition, Pushkin's uncle, Vasily Lvovich, died in August. And because of mourning, the wedding was again postponed, and the poet left Moscow for Boldino to take possession of the village of Kistenevo, which his father gave him.
Interestingly, before leaving Moscow, the groom quarreled with the bride's mother and, under the influence of feelings overwhelming him, wrote in a letter to Natalya that she was “completely free”, and he, in turn, “would only marry her or never marry”. Pushkin arrived at his destination on September 3, 1830. Here he planned to manage business within a month. In the early days, the poet even feared that, due to the hassle of taking over and mortgaging the village of Kistenevo, his fruitful working regime would be disrupted. After all, it was usually in the fall that he wrote his works most zealously.
On this short-term journey, Alexander Sergeevich took with him only three books ("History of the Russian people", 2nd volume of Polevoy, "Iliad" in translation by Gnedich and "Works of English Poets"), of which he later turned out to be very few. Pushkin's plan of a month-long tour to the village was disrupted by the terrible cholera epidemic that covered the European part of Russia. Due to the quarantine cordons, excluding transport links with Moscow and St. Petersburg, he was forced to get stuck in Boldino for three months.
A. S. Pushkin during the "Boldinskaya Autumn"
During his stay in the village, Pushkin plunged headlong into creativity. "Boldinskaya Autumn" was able to give the world a sufficient number of literary works that came out of the hands of the master, both in poetry and in prose. The rural lifestyle had a very beneficial effect on his ability to write. Beautiful nature, clean air and solitude became for the writer those important reasons that he always lacked in a noisy city. He could create from sunrise until late at night, completely surrendering to the muse.
It is "Boldinskaya Autumn" in the life of a Russian genius that is considered the brightest period of creation. Indeed, it was at this time that he was able to reveal himself in many literary genres, creating many works. Here, in three months he managed to complete the writing of the poem "Eugene Onegin", create the poem "House in Kolomna" and 32 lyric works of small forms, write "Little Tragedies" and "Belkin's Tales", as well as create a lot of unfinished works.
Usually Pushkin woke up at six o'clock. His morning routine consisted of a cold shower and hot coffee. Then he began to write. And he did it lying right on the bed. The speed of writing it was so high that many experts are perplexed even today: "He did it so quickly, as if he did not compose his works himself, but wrote it down under dictation." The inspirational time for creativity delighted the classic himself, and he did not miss the opportunity to use it with maximum efficiency. In the village, Alexander Sergeevich was able to master new literary genres. He experimented with vocabulary and combined various folk and artistic forms. Unfortunately, not all of his plans of that time were subsequently fully realized.
Lyric literary forms
It is characteristic that the autumn of 1830 became for the great writer a period of summing up the next results of his work. Back in his letter to his parents in April this year, he mentions the "new period." He also informs Pletnev about this at the end of September: “Until now he is me - and here he will be us. Joke!". The literary upsurge coincided with changes in his personal life. On September 13, The Tale of the Priest and His Worker Balda, written in an edifying manner, was completed. And the final chapter of "Eugene Onegin" tells the reader about a symbolic retrospective of his work through "the change in the images of the Muse." According to Blagoy, the evolution of Pushkin's work during this period took place as "a movement through romanticism to realism, from poetry to prose."
More than thirty poems were composed in Boldino, among which are "Elegy", "My genealogy" and "Demons". The two final chapters of "Eugene Onegin" and the poem "Gypsies" deserve special words. If you try to summarize the creative themes of the lyrics of "Boldinskaya Autumn", you get the impression that the poet sums up past events and tries to formulate his impressions of the present. And samples in folk genres, expressed in the "Tale of the priest and his worker Balda" and the unfinished "Tale of the Bear", only reinforce this impression.
It is the genre versatility and two categories ("memories" of the past and "impressions" of the present) of poetic works that most fully characterize the "Boldin" period of the great Russian poet's work. As literary examples, one can cite “Spell” (love elegy), “Autumn” (eloquent description of nature), “Hero” and “My genealogy” (political and philosophical reflections), “Demons” (genre sketches), “Not that bad … "(epigrams).
In early October 1830, Alexander Sergeevich made an attempt to get out of Boldino, but then he could not overcome the quarantine cordons. Only on December 5 (the third time) he was able to break through to Moscow, not yet recovered from cholera. On December 9, he wrote to Pletnev: “I will tell you (for a secret) that I wrote in Boldino, as I have not written for a long time. Here's what I brought here: the last 2 chapters of Onegin, the 8th and 9th, completely ready for publication. A tale written in octaves (400 verses), which we will give out to Anonyme. Several dramatic scenes, or small tragedies, namely: The Covetous Knight, Mozart and Salieri, Feast in the Time of the Plague, and D. Juan. Moreover, he wrote about 30 small poems. Okay? Not everything: (Very secret) I wrote 5 stories in prose, from which Baratynsky laughs and beats - and which we will also publish Anonyme … ".
Works in prose
"Boldinskaya Autumn" was able to change the poet's worldview in such a way that he decided to realize himself as a prose writer. Here he wrote "Belkin's Tales", which were given to him quite "easily and naturally." He worked in a new literary role for himself with unprecedented enthusiasm and high spirits. And he released this work, filled with light irony, humanity and observation, later under an assumed name.
In the village, Pushkin creates "Little Tragedies", trying himself in drama. The chamber character of the work, in which few characters are involved and a fairly dynamic plot is used, according to the law of the genre, ends with the death of the main character. Basically, all the dramatic works of this cycle tell about the conflicts of human passions, which are resolved in the most sad way. The alarming theme of the "philosophy of modern man's life" was interrupted only after the bride's letter, which returned the writer's lost peace of mind. Natalia Goncharova then wrote that she "promises to marry without a dowry."
In addition, during the period of Boldinskaya Autumn, Alexander Sergeevich wrote two large literary-critical cycles for Literaturnaya Gazeta, but all the articles remained unpublished, since on November 15, 1830, the publication of the newspaper was suspended.
In the life of Pushkin there were two more "Boldin Autumn". He spent October 1833 in this village, and this time he wrote almost as many works: the poems "The Bronze Horseman" and "Angelo", "The Tale of the Fisherman and the Fish", "The Tale of the Dead Princess and the Seven Heroes", "The Queen of Spades" and a number of poems, and also finished "The History of Pugachev". In the fall of 1834, Pushkin again visited Boldino, but wrote only one work there - "The Tale of the Golden Cockerel."