What Are The Types Of Political Regimes

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What Are The Types Of Political Regimes
What Are The Types Of Political Regimes

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A political regime is a form of organization of a political system. It determines the forms and channels of access to managerial positions, the level of political freedom and the nature of political life. Each country has its own political regime, but most of them have similar features.

What are the types of political regimes
What are the types of political regimes

In the most general form, totalitarian, authoritarian and democratic regimes are distinguished. More in-depth is the classification proposed by the famous political scientist J. Blondel. According to his methodology, political regimes can be classified based on three key parameters. This is the nature of the struggle for leadership, the nature of the political elite and the level of mass participation in the political system. According to the first parameter, an open struggle is distinguished, which has a legitimate character (in the form of elections) and a closed struggle (in the form of inheritance, co-optation or armed seizure).

From the point of view of the nature of the political elite, a differentiated and monolithic elite can be distinguished. A monolithic elite arises when there is no division into economic and administrative, i.e. there is a fusion of power and capital. In this case, the struggle for power is formal and the formation of open regimes is impossible.

In terms of the level of participation of the masses in politics, one can distinguish inclusive and excluding regimes, when the masses do not have the opportunity to participate in political life.

Based on these criteria, they distinguish traditional, egalitarian-authoritarian, authoritarian-bureaucratic, authoritarian-inegalitarian, competitive oligarchy and liberal democracy.

Traditional political regime

The traditional political regime, closed with a monolithic elite, excludes the participation of the masses in politics. All countries of the world passed through this political regime, later it was transformed into an authoritarian or democratic one. In some states, it still exists. For example, in Saudi Arabia, Brunei, Bhutan.

The common features of traditional political regimes: the transfer of power by inheritance, the question of reforming political life does not arise, a group of specialized bureaucracy is absent, or represents the interests of the economic elite.

Authoritarian-bureaucratic regime

It is a closed political regime with a differentiated elite. Such regimes arise during periods of transition or crisis, when bureaucrats or the military come to power, who aim to maneuver between the economic elite and the population. The countries of Latin America before the 70s of the twentieth century are cited as an example.

Authoritarian-bureaucratic regimes are divided into military and populist. They are rarely effective, but in some countries, relying on the military is the only way to maintain power in the country.

Egalitarian-authoritarian regime

It is a closed political regime with a monolithic elite, involving the participation of the population. It is often also called communist because it is the communist ideas that are dominant. The regime often emerges in conditions of political awakening, the growth of political activity of the population.

The breakdown of property relations is a sign of an egalitarian-authoritarian regime, and economic life is placed under the control of the state. The elite also becomes an economic elite, i.e. nomenclature. The population is included in political life through the dominant party.

Examples of such a regime are China, North Korea, USSR, Vietnam, Laos. Many communist regimes fell in the waves of democratization. China is a phenomenon of sustainability.

Competitive oligarchy

This is an open exclusive mode. This regime arises during transition periods during the formation of new social classes of the economic elite, which enters into a political struggle.Formally, such regimes have electoral mechanisms, but the population's access to power and their ability to influence political decisions is extremely limited. Such a regime can only be formed on a passive social base. England in the 17-19 centuries is called an example of such a regime.

Authoritarian-inegalitarian regime

It is a closed political regime with a differentiated elite that includes the population in political life. It differs from the communist regime in that it is based not on the principle of equality, but on inequality. It is also based on a single ideology - racial superiority. It allows you to effectively mobilize the masses. Examples of the regime are the countries of fascist Italy and Germany.

Liberal Democratic Regime

It is an open inclusive political regime. It ensures effective political participation of citizens, their equality in relation to the political decision-making process, the ability to receive reliable information and make informed choices.

The key principles of democracy are the separation of powers (a system of checks and balances), the rule of law, and individual freedom. They imply minimal state participation in economic life.

Such regimes are distinguished by pluralism of opinions and political ideas, characterized by acute political struggle and open elections.

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