One of the tasks facing any state is the preparation and implementation of a system of measures aimed at protecting its citizens and material assets from the dangers that are possible in emergency situations and military conflicts. In the Russian Federation, these tasks are carried out within the framework of the civil defense system.
Civil defense: main tasks
Civil defense is a set of measures that are introduced to protect the population and preserve cultural and material values from the multitude of dangers that arise at the outbreak of hostilities during a war, as well as in all kinds of emergencies, both man-made and natural.
The main tasks facing the civil defense system:
- preparing the civilian population for competent action in the face of danger;
- notification of the population in the event of military dangers and emergencies;
- evacuation of citizens and valuables to safer areas;
- providing the population with means of collective and individual protection;
- carrying out emergency and rescue operations;
- ensuring the life of the population affected during emergency situations and during military conflicts;
- detection of hotbeds of fires, areas exposed to biological, chemical and radioactive contamination;
- sanitary and special treatment of objects, territories;
- search activities in relation to aircraft (aircraft, helicopters, spacecraft) that have suffered an accident.
This list of tasks is not exhaustive. Within the framework of civil defense, activities are also carried out on the main types of camouflage. If fires are detected, fire is fought. Infected areas of the terrain are marked, and access to the population is prevented.
Civil defense specialists will have to restore and maintain order wherever military operations are possible, as well as in areas exposed to the destructive effects of natural and man-made factors. Another priority is to quickly restore the uninterrupted operation of utilities.
The Civil Defense Forces work closely with organizations whose activities are essential for the survival of the population in extreme conditions. Their duties also include maintaining order in the affected areas, preserving facilities, without which the economy cannot function.
The fulfillment of the functions assigned by the state to civil defense requires the full readiness of the funds included in this system.
Civil defense: structure
Civil defense in the Russian Federation is built on a clear territorial-production principle. This takes into account the peculiarities of the administrative division of the country, specific regions, settlements, institutions, enterprises and organizations. The civil defense system is being introduced in all departments, as well as at each specific facility of national economic importance.
The government of the country is in charge of the entire system of measures on the scale of the means and forces of civil defense. In the constituent entities of the federation and cities, these issues are the responsibility of the persons in charge of the executive authorities.
In ministries, other departments, government agencies, universities, at enterprises (regardless of their form of ownership), civil defense (GO) is in charge of their heads, who, according to their position, become heads of civil defense.
Direct management of the civil defense system in Russia is assigned to the country's Ministry of Emergency Situations. This ministry can, within the limits of its rights and powers, develop decisions that are binding on other local authorities and self-government bodies.
When solving the issues facing the civil defense, it is necessary to solve special tasks as well. For this purpose, evacuation commissions are created at each management level, as well as commissions responsible for the stable and uninterrupted operation of economic facilities.
On the ground, the activities of local civil defense bodies are coordinated by the regional centers of the Civil Defense and Emergencies. They are considered the plenipotentiary representatives of the Ministry of Emergency Situations in a particular region.
Civil defense forces
The civil defense forces are called upon to carry out direct work aimed at fulfilling the tasks facing the civil defense. The structure of such forces includes military formations (civil defense forces), as well as civilian institutions.
The standard armament of the civil defense forces includes:
- special equipment;
- hand-held small arms;
- steel arms.
If necessary, other formations of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, and in some cases, emergency rescue services can be involved in solving problems. Civil defense military units are united in special centers, training and rescue units, air detachments. The civil defense troops are subordinate to the head of the RF Ministry of Emergencies.
The main goal of creating civil organizations within the civil defense system is to protect the population from the dangers that arise in emergency situations. Civilians are enrolled in such structures. The types and composition of specific formations are determined in agreement with local authorities and enterprises. Local executive authorities also keep records of the civilian formations being created and their training.
Citizens of Russia, as established by law:
- are trained in methods and techniques for effective protection against hazards;
- participate in carrying out activities under civil defense plans;
- render assistance and all-round assistance to the authorities in solving the problems facing the civil defense.
Civil defense units begin to actively conduct their activities in the event of a declaration of a state of war, with the actual start of hostilities or with the introduction of martial law by the president of the country. In peacetime, the activities of civil defense forces are carried out in the event of natural disasters, epizootics, epidemics, in the event of especially major accidents and disasters that endanger the health of citizens. Civil defense forces and means come into action when emergency, search, rescue and other urgent work is required.
The growth of terrorist threats, which may be associated with the risk of the use of chemical, biological and other types of weapons, forces the leadership of civil defense to pay special attention to the development of a network of active surveillance and laboratory and technical control.
Civil defense system at enterprises
The country's legislation establishes the limits of the powers of organizations and enterprises in the implementation of the system of civil defense measures. They are instructed to take measures for sustainable development in wartime, systematically plan activities to train their employees in ways to protect themselves from various dangers.
One of the main responsibilities of civil defense managers in an enterprise is to maintain local warning systems in good working order. In case of emergencies and dangerous situations in institutions and enterprises, stocks of food, equipment, and medical supplies should be formed.
The civil defense headquarters and its services ensure the implementation of all these measures. The chief of staff is in fact the deputy head of the organization's civil defense. Depending on the size of the enterprise, services can be created on it:
- communications and alerts;
- anti-chemical protection;
- anti-radiation protection;
- emergency technical;
- protection of order.
If necessary, additional units or groups for the maintenance of shelters and shelters can be formed.